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Biography

Chinua Achebe


Albert Chinualumogu Achebe was born on November 16, 1930, in Nigeria. He was a Nigerian novelist, poet, professor, and critic. His first novel Things Fall Apart is widely read book in African literature. He was raised by his parents in Igbo town in Ogidi in south-east Nigeria. His father was a protestant missionary. Achebe excelled at school and won a scholarship for undergraduate studies at University College. Achebe attended the Government College in Umuahia from 1944 to 1947. He was graduated from University College, Ibadan, in 1953. While he was in college he studied history and theology. After graduation he worked for the Nigerian Broadcasting Service(NBS) and soon moved to metropolis of Lagos. He also developed his interest in native Nigerian and he rejected his christian name Albert for his native one chinua. In 1950 Achebe stands as one of the founder of a Nigerian literary movement. He gained worldwide attention for Things Fall Apart in the late 1950.

He was presented the Man Booker International Prize in 2007 for his literary career. Judge Nadine Gordimer called him the ‘father of modern African literature’ at the Award ceremony.He won The Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize in 2010. The annual prize is given to “a man or woman who has made an outstanding contribution to the beauty of the world and to mankind’s enjoyment and understanding of life.”

His later novels include No Longer at Ease (1960), Arrow of God (1964), A Man of the People (1966), and Anthills of the Savannah (1987). Achebe wrote his novels in English and defended the use of English, a “language of colonisers”, in African literature. In 1967, he co-founded a publishing company with a Nigerian poet named Christopher Okigbo and in 1971, he began editing Okike, a respected journal of Nigerian writing. In 1975, his lecture An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad’s “Heart of Darkness” featured a famous criticism of Joseph Conrad as “a thoroughgoing racist”; it was later published in The Massachusetts Review amid some controversy. In 1984, he founded Uwa ndi Igbo, a bilingual magazine containing a great deal of information about Igbo culture. He has been active in Nigerian politics since the 1960s, and many of his novels address the post-colonial social and political problems that Nigeria still faces. From 2009 until his death, he served as David and Marianna Fisher University Professor and Professor of Africana Studies at Brown University.

His work’s:

Novels

  • Things Fall Apart (1958),
  • No Longer at Ease (1960),
  • Arrow of God (1964),
  • A Man of the People (1966),
  • Anthills of the Savannah (1987).

Short stories

  • Marriage Is A Private Affair (1952),
  • Dead Men’s Path (1953),
  • The Sacrificial Egg and Other Stories (1953),
  • Civil Peace (1971),
  • Girls at War and Other Stories  (1973),
  • African Short Stories (1985),
  • The Heinemann Book of Contemporary African Short Stories  (1992),
  • The Voter.

Poetry

  • Beware, Soul-Brother, and Other Poems (1971) ,
  • Don’t Let Him Die: An Anthology of Memorial Poems for Christopher Okigbo  (1978),
  • Another Africa (1998),
  • Collected Poems Carcanet Press (2005),
  • Refugee Mother And Child,
  • Vultures.

Essays, criticism, non-fiction and political commentary

  • The Novelist as Teacher (1965) – also in Hopes and Impediments,
  • An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad’s “Heart of Darkness” (1975) – also in Hopes and Impediments,
  • Morning Yet on Creation Day (1975),
  • The Trouble With Nigeria (1984),
  • Hopes and Impediments (1988),
  • Home and Exile (2000),
  • The Education of a British-Protected Child (6 October 2009),
  • There Was A Country: A Personal History of Biafra (11 October 2012).

John Milton


Full Name            : John Milton

Nationality          : English

Birth & Death     : Born in London on 9th December 1608 and died in London on 8 November 1674.

Occupation         : Poet, civil servant, prose polemicist.

Parents                 : Father John and mother Sara.

Life partners      : Marie Powell, Katherine Woodcock, Elizabeth Mynshull

Life History         : Jhon Milton was a famous English poet. He had an older sister Anne and a younger brother Christopher and several siblings who died before reaching adulthood. John Milton attended St. Paul’s school, and learn Latin, Greek, French, Italian, Hebrew and Spanish in his lifetime. He attended Christ’s College in Cambridge and graduating in 1629 with his Bachelor of Arts degree, and 1632 with a Master of Arts. He was best known for his poem Paradise Lost. He was widely regarded as the great epic poet in English. In May 1638 Milton take tour and visited France and Italy. His travel gains his knowledge in his study with new and direct experience of artistic and religious traditions, especially Roman Catholicism.

Works:

Poetry and drama

  • L’Allegro (1631)
  • IL Penseroso (1631)
  • Lycidas (1638)
  • On the Late Massacre in Piedmont (1655)
  • Paradise Lost (1667)
  • Paradise Regained (1671)
  • Samson Agonistes (1671)

Prose

  • Of Reformation (1641)
  • Of Prelatical Episcopacy (1641)
  • Animadversions (1641)
  • The Reason of Church-Government Urged against Prelaty (1642)
  • Apology for Smectymnuus (1642)
  • Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce (1643)
  • Judgement of Martin Bucer Concerning Divorce (1644)
  • Of Education (1644)
  • Areopagitica (1644)
  • Tetrachordon (1645)
  • Colasterion (1645)
  • The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates (1649)
  • Eikonoklastes (1649)
  • Defensio pro Populo Anglicano (1651)
  • Defensio Secunda (1654)
  • A Treatise of Civil Power (1659)
  • The Likeliest Means to Remove Hirelings from the Church (1659)
  • The Ready and Easy Way to Establish a Free Commonwealth (1660)
  • Brief Notes Upon a Late Sermon (1660)
  • Accedence Commenced Grammar (1669)
  • History of Britain (1670)
  • Artis logicae plenior institutio (1672)
  • Of True Religion (1673)
  • Epistolae Familiaries (1674)
  • Prolusiones (1674)
  • De Doctrina Christiana (1823).

Wallace Stevens

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Full Name            :  Wallace Stevens

Nationality          : American

Birth & Death     : Born on 2nd Oct 1879 in Reading, Pennsylvania, U.S and Died on 2nd Aug 1955 in Connecticut, U.S.

Occupation         : Poet, Insurance Executive.

Education            : Harvard and New York Law School

Parents                 : Father Garrett Barcalow Stevens and Mother Margaretha Catharine Zeller.

Life partners      : Elsie Viola Kachel

Awards                 : Bollingen Prize for Poetry (1949), National Book Award for Poetry (1951), Frost Medal (1951), Pulitzer Prize for Poetry (1955).

Life History         : His father was a lawyer and businessman and his mother was a school teacher. He studied at Harvard but he could not complete his degree and finally he gets his graduation from New York Law School. He married Elsie Kachel and gives birth to a daughter. Stevens got interested in verse writing and began to publish his first book Harmonium. Stevens spend most of his life time for working to an insurance company at Hartford. He spends most of his time behind a desk in his office. Through his imagination power Stevens had created many poems in his life time.

Works :

  Poetry

  • Harmonium (1923)
  • Ideas of Order (1936)
  • Owl’s Clover (1936)
  • The Man with the Blue Guitar (1937)
  • Parts of a World (1942)
  • Transport to Summer (1947)
  • The Auroras of Autumn (1950)
  • The Collected Poems of Wallace Stevens (1954)
  • Opus Posthumous (1957)
  • The Palm at the End of the Mind (1972)

  Prose

  • The Necessary Angel (1951)

  Plays

  • Three Travelers Watch a Sunrise (1916).

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